Antimutagenic Activity of Tiger Nut (Cyperus esculentus): Tuber against Sodium Azide Induced Mutagenicity in Allium cepa Chromosomal Assay

Abiola Temitope*, Akinyode Olukunle A and Ojo Abosede V

Tiger nut has been reported to possess high nutritional and medicinal value adduced to its nutrients and bioactive principles. The aim of this research was to determine the in vitro antimutagenic activity of the ethanolic extract of tiger nut (Cyperus esculentus). Crude extraction protocol was done using ethanol. Qualitative and quantitative phytochemical screening was done using standard methods. Allium cepa chromosome assay was used to assess the antimutagenic potential. Onion bulbs were divided into pre-treatment groups in which bulbs were grown in 200 mg/kg of ethanolic extract of Cyperus esculentus for 24 hours and then, grown in sodium azide (NaN3) (250 µg/l) for 24 hrs. In the post treatment group, onion bulbs were first exposed to NaN3 (250 µg/l) for 24 hours before treatment with 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg of ethanolic extract of Cyperus esculentus respectively. Distilled water and NaN3 (250 µg/L) served as the negative and positive control respectively. Mitotic index and evaluation of the total chromosomal aberrations was done using standard methods. Results revealed the presence of flavonoids (22.47 mg/g), tannins (0.08 mg/g), alkaloid (19.71 mg/g), glycosides, phenol and resin. There was a significant (p<0.05) reduction in the chromosomal aberrations and a higher mitotic index of the treated groups when compared to the positive control. However, a higher damage reduction percentage was observed in the post-treated group when compared to the pre-treated group. The extract demonstrated anti-mutagenic activity against sodium azide which might be attributed to some of its phytochemical constituents.

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